السلام عليكم ورحمة الله
Written 2 BAC
للمراجعة الخفيفة ولأخذ فكرة عن طريقة صياغة المواضيع الانشائية
THE INTERNETThe Internet is a worldwide, publicly accessible network of interconnected computer networks that transmit data by packet switching usingthe standard Internet Protocol (IP). It is a "network of networks" that consistsof millions of smaller domestic, academic, business, and government networks, which together carry various information and services, such as electronic mail, online chat, file transfer, and the interlinked web pages and other documents ofthe world wide web.
Many people consider the internet as one of the most important sources of learning. It not only gives sound and picture but reading texts as well. Besides this, it enables people of different ages to widen and enrich their knowledge about a specific topic. The internet is a bank of information where one can find anything he or she dreams of. Although some people still dread using the internet, it remains a powerful and vital means of learning
Culture is referred to as ways of living and behaviours which people all over the world should preserve and respect. Having an awareness of different cultures enables people to tolerate odd behaviours that seem uncommon to them. Another point is the one concerning values. Parents and educators should implement good values such as truthfulness, loyalty, hardwork, punctuality, creativity… so that the future generations would be able to hold the burden. To summarise, foreign languages are worth learning in order to avoid cultural shock and to have the ability to deal with cultural issues in an appropriate way.
Psychologists think that young people start smoking because they think it’s cool. They do it so purely because they find it enjoyable. They also think they have the right to do so. Another reason is that older people who are supposed to set an example to them smoke too. Once they start, they keep wanting it and so they can’t stop it. Some youngsters do that because they want to fit within a particular group, to be accepted or to feel more adult. That’s to say, many of them want to exercise some sense of independence or rebellion.
Most of these young people claim that smoking helps them cope with stress. But in fact, nicotine is a stimulant and won’t help to attain relaxation. A withdrawal from it, however, makes them feel miserable and lose concentration.
Other reasons :
*Smokers may use smoking as a support when things go wrong.
*They may enjoy it with others as a group activity.
*They may also use it to start a conversation with new people so as to look more confident and be in control.
*They think that a cigarette keeps them company when they feel bored or lonely.
Knowing why you smoke is one of the first steps towards giving up:
Giving up is the best thing smokers can do to improve their health. Most of them say that they would like to give up if they could. The solution isn’t a simple thing to do. It may take several attempts to quit for good. There are no magic solutions for quitting smoking, “When there is a will, there’s a way”.
When your parents were young, people could buy cigarettes and smokepretty much anywhere – even in hospitals! Ads for cigarettes were all over theplace. Today we're more aware about how bad smoking is for our health. Smokingis restricted or banned in almost all public places and cigarette companies areno longer allowed to advertise on buses or trains, billboards, TV, and in manymagazines.
Almost everyone knows that smoking causes cancer, emphysema, andheart disease; that it can shorten your life by 14 years or more; and that thehabit can cost a smoker thousands of dollars a year. So how come people arestill lightingup!
Women have for so long been likened to slaves, created just to serve and execute men’s orders. In some cultures, they were considered as a part of the furniture of the house. The situation is not as acute as it used to be. However, girls in some parts of the world are still unable to go to school because life in the countryside needs help even from children. Thus, illiteracy is so prevailing in rural areas. It undoubtedly affects development and prosperity. As a result, the government has launched many campaigns aiming at fighting this problem which is an obstracle in the integration of women in the development of the Moroccan society.
Women in all parts of the world have struggled so as to get a place in the sun. The fruit of this hard work has been the family code. Many claim that it’s a triumph for Moroccan women. Others, however, believe that it has complicated things and has widened the gap between men and women.. The point is that women need moe rights to be able to efficiently contribute to the welfare of the society. For this reason, we witness today their emergence in political parties and organisations to raise up their voices against gender discrimination within the same society.
There have been a lot of chages in our social life in the lastdecades .many more women working ,of course ,has the lifestyle of manyfamilies
Many people are worried whether a carrer women can properly care forthe children the advantage of women working
women and men are equal andshould also have the right have a job
women should hlep in the devlopment oftheircountry
carrer mot her are usually educated and so can help theirfamily
the disadvantage of carrer women : women find ut difficult to takevery good care of children while working out side they usually nturn home tiredoften a day 's work outside the also have to deal with the house work the areleft with litter time to care for their childern .
thes affect a lot thewhole family ,and may cause problems for children at schol ….e bc.
.finallyi say that at taking good care children of women /mothers alonne
man/fathershould also share this responsibility with their wives
life is getting veryexpensive and women to help theirfamily
WHY DO CHILDREN LEAVE SCHOOL ?
One of the biggest issues that some families encounter is their children's dropping out of school. This is due to many reasons. First, most children who live in rural areas can't attend school regularly because it is situated far away from where they live. Their parents also need them to help with the housework. Another reason is that poor families can't afford to provide their children with all what they need for school, as books and school things are getting expensive. The problem is also due to family problems and divorce. Children can't study when parents often have rows. In cities, small children leave school early to go out to work and support their deprived families. As a result, these poor kids get lost in the world of adults. Some become addicted to smoking and drugs. Others turn to crime. Generally speaking, they are victims of circumstances and are, thus, often emprisoned.
Morocco is very rich culturally. It has many dialects and traditions which differ from one region to another. The more we move towards the center , the north, the south , the west or the east things start to change. This difference is what makes our country attractive and a destination for millions of tourists every year. Morocco offers numerous delicious dishes and comfortable hotels available everywhere. Another advantage is the suitable weather that appeals to foreign visitors from the five continents. The Morocan people are tolerant, generous and ready to give a helping hand to the needy. They welcome their guests and try their best to make their stay as enjoyable as possible.
Advanced technology has transformed our lives completely both physically and morally. Every day people are assaulted by new gadgets on markets. As a result, life is becoming more and more comfortable but complicated as well. Unemployment is spreading because machines are taking man’s place. Armed conflicts break out here and there due to free arm trade. More and more refugees abandon their home land in search of peaceful shelther. Technology is something good as long as it serves humanity. However, when it makes a mistake, the price to pay is very high : human lives!
Every country has got its own culture and customs which of course differ from other nations. Therefore, Morocco is no exception. As far as celebrations are concerned, weddings are prepared differently in our country. There are many steps to be done before, during and after the wedding ceremony. Firstly, meetings are organised by both families to agree on many things in particular the dowry and also to fix the date of the feast.
Then, the groom’s family take food ( sheep, oil, sugar, vegetables, fruit etc…in vans usually accompanied by a mucical group) to the bride’s house who are of course expecting the visit.
Next, on the day of the wedding party, many people are invited. A lot of food is served to the guests mainly two main dishes : chicken and meat. Cake and tea are served to the visitors before and after. A musical orchestra plays popular songs and many people dance. The bride changes costumes and walks in front of her future husband.
At dawn, many cars in cavalcade leave for the hotel where the new couple is supposed to spend the night.
Illieracy is one of the biggest problems in the third world countries. It is spreading as quick as a forest fire among women especially in rural areas. The government has already lauunched several campaigns aiming at reducing the rate. However, this is not enough. We should build more and more schools in remote regions. Moreover, we ought to urge villagers to send their children , mainly girls, to school. Mass media should play a major role to fight this phenomenon which hinders development through special prgrammes so as to show the importance of literacy and its benefits for individuals no matter how differents in age or sex they are.
One of the most serious issues in the world today is the brain drain phenomenon. Thousands of intellectuals leave their native country in search for a better life. There are many factors that breed this situation. First, the lack of job opportunies is one of them. Moreover, the host country offers better work conditions and ensures a comfortable life for these new comers. This “Capital flight” as many people call it has both positive and negative effects. It not only helps these brainy people to improve their standards of living but it also enables them to contribute to the development of their home country when they come back. One way to prevent this, is to offer to these people tempting salaries and opportunities to ameliorate their potentials inside their home country.
THE DRIFT TOWARDS CITIES
More and more villagers move towards cities every year in search for a better life. This drift is due to many reasons. First, the city offers many job opportunities with tempting salaries. Second, life necessities such as water, electricity, transport, health care, education and entertainment are available. Moreover, severe droughts and unemployment are the major cause of this drift. Once these villagers set foot on a big city, they find it hard to adjust to the new life. The city now is crammed with people and vehicles. As a result, pollution and waste are everywhere which affects people’s health.
MY SCHOOL'S PROJECT
Some of my classmates and I decided to take part in our school’s project. We wanted to change the way the classroom looked. The walls had bad writings on them, the rooms were dirty and unsuitable for learning and the windows were broken. A group got in charge of painting the walls. We wanted the classrooms to be bright and nicely decorated. Some replaced broken windows and repaired the lamps. At first, the idea seemed impossible. But now, I can say that team work always pays off. I never knew how important voluntary work was until I took part in my school’s project. Thanks to a goup work, our school now looks different. In fact, its name used among other schools as a model of cleanness.
A WOMAN'S PARTICIPATION IN DEVELOPMENT
Nobody can deny the fact that a woman’s place in society is extremely crucial. Her presence and contribution in many domains solve many problems.
At the political level, a woman’s presence in regional, national and international meetings is vital to speak on the behalf of millions of deprived, illiterate and defenceless women. Who can better urge a woman to get educated and struggle for rights than a womn herself ?
At the economic level, she can support her family financially and help them lead a comfortable life. A working woman has got the means to improve the standard of living of the people under her responsibility by providing adequate food, better education and health care.
At the social level, she can participate in the development of her country by going out to work and sharing responsibility with man. Thus, she can bridge gaps, and build confidence among hopeless and desperate women. Both women and men can ensure a safer world for the coming generations.
Poverty has many causes. First, it is due to severe droughts. Irregular weathers have been so frequent for many years. As a consequence, farming faces hard times and farmers give up their jobs, abandon their land and move to cities. Another reason is that wars : civil wars, ethnic wars etc break out here and there. As a result, millions of people leave their homeland in search of a safer place. Globalization has made the poor poorer and the rich richer. Hence, poverty has led millions of people throughout the world to immigrate to richer and safer places.
Poverty is becoming a serious problems for many countries , itaffects the whole society and delays the development of the country .
Poor families very often have health problems , because they havelot of children , parents are unable to provide medicine for them ,also theycant send them to school since schooling is expensive , they send them insteadto work and bring them money , so when members of society are unhealthy orilliterate this affect the development of the country .
Poverty is a serious problem, an enemy that government shouldfight by trying to make all members of society benefit from the resources oftheir country and work for its development.
Advanced technology has deeply transformed our life. It has shortened distances and improved the way we live. No doubt, life is much more comfortable than ever before. Nevertheless, modern life has drawbacks. Millions of people are on the dole because the factories where they work have closed down. More than this, economic crisis compels these firms to limit services and reduce their work opportunities. As a result, many people find themselves in the street. Another factor that contibutes to unemployment is that machines are taking man’s place. Employers strongly hold the view that automation speeds up production and stablises its pace. What’s more, machines never go on a strike and do not ask for a raise in salaries !..
Street kids, runaways, or children living in poverty are sometimes intentionally disfigured to attract more money from passersby. These victims are often beaten or injured if they don't bring in enough money. They are also vulnerable to sexual abuse.Ranging in age from three to eighteen, about 40% are homeless. They are unable to attend school and are considered to live in "especially difficult circumstances”. , these children are the defenseless victims of brutal violence, sexual exploitation, Street living children are children who may have lost their families through war or illness, or have been abandoned because they had It is not unusual to see children as young as four or five years old working in the street, selling chewing gum and matches. These children often resort to theft and prostitution for survival. Most of them are addicted to shoe glue, which cause brain damage They put it into bottles, and hide it under their tee shirts, guarding it with their lives. They sniff it constantly because it gets them high and masks their loneliness and gives them security. Soon they are on to harder drugsWithout education they have little hope of getting a decent job or building a better life in the future.
Many specialists regard stress as modern man’s main problem. It not only makes one feel bored and lazy but it also fills him or her with despair. Now, what are the causes ?
Fisrt, one essential cause is insufficient sleep. Research has proved that those who stay up late in front of computers or TV, for example, are easy prays. That’s to say, these peolpe start suffering from lack of concentration. As a result, they find it hard to do their duties properly. Students, in particular, inevitably miss classes and fail to fulfill satisfactory school results. Another cause for stress is the race against time that some people find themselves inside of it. They do everything in a rush for fear that they would run out of time.
Stressed people are moody, bad-tempered and irritable. Consequently, they constantly have rows and quarrels which makes life with them unbearable. Another thing is that these people see life from a dark side. They are all the time complaining, criticizing and dis contented. Gradually, they will reach the top of despair and become pessimistic. As a consequence, many of them will think about putting an end to their lives !
Doctors advise people to get enough sleep, avoid stimulants and manage time well. This, of course will help in feeling more at ease and relaxed.
Language is obviously a vital tool not only is it a means ofcommunicating thoughts and ideas, but it forges friendship cultural ties andeconomic relationship.
Throughout history many have reflected on importance of language for instance language shapes thoughts and emotions , determining one’sperception of reality .language is not only a vehicle for the expression of thoughts , perceptions , sentiments and values , It also represent ; afundamental expression of social identity .
Language of course is knowledge and in our world today, knowledgeis on the key factor in competitiveness.
Brains and knowledge are what create the prosperity and growth wetend to take for granted .In an advanced industrial society in an increasingly interdependent world the knowledge of other languages becomesindispensable.
In short, it’s very important to learn foreign languages but without forget your identity.
A language is a system used to facilitate communication among higher animalsand/or computers. This article is about the fundamental features typically foundin nearly all natural human languages. For information about artificiallanguages specifically for computers, please see instead machine code. Higheranimals believed to employ audible language only, without symbols, include, butare not limited to, dolphins and whales. For information about this subject, please see "Animal communication" instead
World science is dominated today by a small number of languages, but Englishwhich is probably is the most popular global language of science and of moderntechnology that because many reason: first it is international language and themajority of country used it as their home language, In addition to that you canunderstand what happen in the world, in the other hand you can understand thenew technology, moreover we see that the people that speak more than twolanguage have a chance to get a better job than the other people who can speakjust one. And also it is very important to student who want finish their Hightstudy in university.
Finally English will become more important in the futureand more using in all things
You inscribe to University
Dear madam; Date:
I am writing to ask about opportunities to study interpreting inyour university, I am Moroccan, aged 19, and I hop to pass my baccalaureate well .I want to become a Translator or interpreter in Arabic French and English , ifI obtain a place at this university , my uncle who lives in Las Vegas ,will paymy expenses.
My first language is Arabic, I have also French since the age of 9 , I speak it fluently , and I have a good reading and writing knowledge ofit.
My second foreign language is English, which I do not yet speakfluently, however. I can read it quite well and can write a certain amount . Ialso have a limited knowledge of Spanish.
I should be grateful if you would send me details of yourentrance equipments a copy of your prospectus and an application form.
Dropping from school
The fact that student drop off from school is a serious problemsthat hinders the progress of student first and then the level of nationaleducation .
Most of students who drop off from school are poor, they speaktheir incapability of supplying, their parents obliged them to drop off from andlook for a job to help the family .
Other reason may be attributed to the students indifference .those students who stop going to school are villagers because they don’t attendclasses doing some agricultural work instead.
Other ex-students attest that leaving school is not an idea thatcomes at random but as a reaction to the dissatisfaction resulted by those whohave attained their degrees but gained no work after .
The government must do some serious attempts so that students cankeep up with their studies no matter what circumstances are .Also it should setplan to improve the educational system to most attainable one that open mindsand doors
Spanish officials estimate that about 1.000 people have downedattempting to enter Europe by crossing the 10-mile wide strait of Gibraltar inthe past six years , Spanish officials say that morocco is tolerating the exitof small boats .
In 1996. several hundred illegal immigrants .most Moroccans werepicked up by the police and coast guard on the southern shores of Spain , morocco’s newly appointed prime mister.Aberahmane youssoufi . blamed illegal immigration on poverty , and said that policeman and walls are not solution tothe illegal migration ,which should be handed with realism in order to findhuman solutions .
On February, the interior ministers of morocco and Italy signed aconvention to cooperate in the fight against drug smuggling and illegalimmigration the Italian interior minister said that a lot of Moroccans livelegally in Italy .the largest foreign community in the country.
Hand in hand between Morocco and Italy to fight drugs , illegal immigration .
Urbanization refers to a process in which an increasingproportion of entire population lives in cities and the suburbs of cities, this phenomenon has been closely connected with industrialization .
By the end of this decade, more than half of the world’spopulation will live in cities making humanity a predominantly urban species for the first time in Its history .
When more and more inanimate sources of energy were used in toenhance human productivity . surpluses increased economical fields
Such as industry. Then the larger and larger proportions of population could live in cities.
Economic forces were such that cities became the ideal places tolocate factories and their workers , urbanization is a serious problem that willspoil the natural world in due course .there will be no country-sides and nogreen places to feel the first endowed natural beauty of this world .
Parents-children relationship differ from one family to another. While some parents complain that their children don’t listen to them anymore, children on the other hand complain that their parents don’t understand them anylonger .
My relationship with my parents is a good one , I respect themand understand them, the allow me to choose my friends my cloths to travel aloneand to invite friends home, however, they are very strict when it comes to myhomework or staying late out late at night .
To have a good parents-relationship is very easy thing if bothparents and children make efforts to create such a kind of relationship.
There are many dangers when driving in a big city , traffic jams, road rage, car jacking drive-by- shootings ,smash-and-grabs , accidents orpurpose ambulance chasers , corrupt police , touring ,companies that can grabyour car in ten seconds .the list goes on.
Traffic jams are caused by drivers who tailgate and try to drivefaster than the flow of traffic , when drivers merge at the last second , theyhave to step on their brakes , and that causes the tailgaters behind them tostep on their brakes , roads rage occurs when someone loses self-control , somedriver is going too fast , this causes a clash , there are many reasons behindthe traffic jams problem.
The latter can also be attributed to the road code, violation , speed and carelessness , other reasons such as natural factors are involved ,snow , obscurity, and rain are most of them , one other cause is the poorinfra-structure.
Understanding these very real dangers will help you learn how toavoid or prevent traffic problems .drivers should drive safely and learn tomaintain self-control , the driver should be a street-wise so that he can takethe necessaryprecautions.
Television has became part of our every day life . what are its advantages and disadvantages ?
On the one hand, TV has became the most influential meansof the mass media because it has both sound and picture .it's also the mostpopular source of information education and international , in brief TV bringsthe whole word to us.
One the other hand TV develops passive and lazy viewers .it also prevents communication between the members of the family besidesstudents don't their homwork and may became aggressive when they watch films ofviolence.
Nowdays .TV viewers have a wide choice of channels .more and more peoplehave got satellite TV not all of them are satisfied with it .
satellite TVhas both advantages and drawbaks . whats is de advantages and drawbaks ofTV,?
-satellite TV brings the whole world into your home there a variety ofprogrammes to choose fromit helps people improve foreigs languages and there arelots of entertaining …educating programmes. You may not feel bored.
-andthe drawbaks of satellite TV :
People spend too mush time watching TV andthey become passive and lazy there are too many channels and it is oftendificulet to choose the right programme and the people watch foreign TV channelsand not their national TV .
Thy don't know what is happening in their country ,they might forget about their own culture and problem
Children don't dotheir homework ,don't read enough .
-satellite TV like any other technologyis means to an end people should be selective and watch interesting programmesonly.
WAR is one of the wost crime that pople have ever made to the humanity. that's why we should know why some ediot poeple can't stand leaving in peacebecuase
the best thing that can draw the smile on every one's face is thepeace. but in reality we have a deferent image to the world, we see that no onewant to respect the right of other or want's to enslave poeple or take thereweals, and they make some silly reasons to get what they want exactly like whathappend to
our brothers in iraq.
war also creat a very bad destarctionand ruin in everywhere.
and from the main point we can say that poepl instean of burning world they have to to learn how to leave in peace and creat thehappiness instead of hate andkilling.
Child labour is one of the problems that many
countries face, thereare various causes that drive children to work some of them drop out of schoolin order to help their poor or sick parents others have to work because they areorphans. In addiction some parents are ignorant they think education is a wasteof time.
Working children face a tough life; in factories and mines theywork in bad conditions no fresh air, long hours they may be injured by machinesthey are also deprived of education and childhood
air pollution can effect our health in many ways with a bothshort-term effects different groups of individuals are effected by air pollutionin different ways .some individual sare much more sensitive to pollutants thanare others. young children and elderly people after suffer môre from effects ofair pollution.poeple with health problems such asthma .heart and lung diseasemay olso suffer more when the air is poolluted the extent to wich in individualis harmed by air pollution usualy depends on the total to the damaging chimicalsi.e the duration of exposure and the concentration of the chimicals must betaken into account..this s the end of pragraph i wish to benefit it ok
The concept of human rights has existed under several names inEuropean thought for many centuries, at least since the time of King John ofEngland. After the king violated a number of ancient laws and customs by whichEngland had been governed, his subjects forced him to sign the Magna Carta, orGreat Charter, which enumerates a number of what later came to be thought of ashuman rights. Among them were the right of the church to be free fromgovernmental interference, the rights of all free citizens to own and inheritproperty and be free from excessive taxes. It established the right of widowswho owned property to choose not to remarry, and established principles of dueprocess and equality before the law. It also contained provisions forbiddingbribery and official misconduct.
The political and religious traditions in other parts of the world also proclaimed what have come to be called humanrights, calling on rulers to rule justly and compassionately, and delineating limits on their power over the lives, property, and activities of theircitizens.
In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in Europe severalphilosophers proposed the concept of "natural rights," rights belonging to aperson by nature and because he was a human being, not by virtue of hiscitizenship in a particular country or membership in a particular religious orethnic group. This concept was vigorously debated and rejected by somephilosophers as baseless. Others saw it as a formulation of the underlyingprinciple on which all ideas of citizens' rights and political and religiousliberty were based.
In the late 1700s two revolutions occurred which drewheavily on this concept. In 1776 most of the British colonies in North Americaproclaimed their independence from the British Empire in a document which stillstirs feelings, and debate, the U.S. Declaration of Independence
In economics, business is the social science of managing people to organizeand maintain collective productivity toward accomplishing particular creativeand productive goals, usually to generate profit.
The etymology of "business" refers to the state of being busy, in the context of the individual as well asthe community or society. In other words, to be busy is to be doing commerciallyviable and profitable work.
The term "business" has at least three usages, depending on the scope — the general usage (above), the singular usage to referto a particular company or corporation, and the generalized usage to refer to aparticular market sector, such as "the record business," "the computerbusiness," or "the business community" — the community of suppliers of goodsand services.
The singular "business" can be a legally-recognized entitywithin an economically free society, wherein individuals organize based onexpertise and skills to bring about social and technological advancement.
Inpredominantly capitalist economies, businesses are typically formed to earnprofit and grow the personal wealth of their owners.
The owners and operatorsof a business have as one of their main objectives the receipt or generation ofa financial return in exchange for their work — that is, the expense of time andenergy — and for their acceptance of risk — investing work and money withoutcertainty of success.
Notable exceptions to this rule include some businesseswhich are cooperatives, or government institutions.
However, the exactdefinition of business is disputable as is business philosophy; for example, some Marxists use "means of production" as a rough synonym for "business"; however a more accurate definition of "means of production" would be theresources and apparatus by which products and services are created.
Controlof these resources and apparatus results in control of business activity, andso, while they are very closely related, they are not the samething.
Socialists advocate either government, public, or worker ownership ofmost sizable businesses. Some advocate a mixed economy of private andstate-owned enterprises. Others advocate a capitalist economy where all, ornearly all, enterprises are privately owned.
Business Studies is taught as asubject in manyschools
Globalization refers to increasing global connectivity, integration andinterdependence in the economic, social, technological, cultural, political, andecological spheres. Globalization is an umbrella term and is perhaps bestunderstood as a unitary process inclusive of many sub-processes (such asenhanced economic interdependence, increased cultural influence, rapid advancesof information technology, and novel governance and geopolitical challenges) that are increasingly binding people and the biosphere more tightly into oneglobal system.
There are several definitions and all usually mention theincreasing connectivity of economies and ways of life across the world. TheEncyclopedia Britannica says that globalization is the "process by which theexperience of everyday life … is becoming standardized around the world." While some scholars and observers of globalization stress convergence ofpatterns of production and consumption and a resulting homogenization of culture, others stress that globalization has the potential to take many diverseforms.
One the hand advertising makes consumers aware, of the new products on themarket and helps them spend their money wisely it also as creates many jobs .
On the other hand advertising makes people feel frustrated, if they can'tafford the products.it also increases the prise of goods what's more it urgesconsumers to buy unnecessary commodities .
For the first twenty years of motion picture history most silent films wereshort–only a few minutes in length. At first a novelty, and then increasinglyan art form and literary form, silent films reached greater complexity andlength in the early 1910's. The films on the list above represent the greatestachievements of the silent era, which ended–after years of experimentation–in 1929 when a means of recording sound that would be synchronous with the recordedimage was discovered. Few silent films were made in the 1930s, with theexception of Charlie Chaplin, whose character of the Tramp perfected expressivephysical moves in many short films in the 1910's and 1920s. When the silent eraended, Chaplin refused to go along with sound; instead, he maintained themelodramatic Tramp as his mainstay in City Lights (1931) and Modern Times (1936). The trademarks of Chaplin's Tramp were his ill-fitting suit, floppyover-sized shoes and a bowler hat, and his ever-present cane. A memorable imageis Chaplin's Tramp shuffling off, penguin-like, into the sunset and spinning hiscane whimsically as he exits. He represented the "little guy," the underdog, someone who used wit and whimsy to defeat his adversaries.
Eisenstein'scontribution to the development of cinema rested primarily in his theory ofediting, or montage, which focused on the collision of opposites in order tocreate a new entity. One of the greatest achievements in editing is the OdessaSteps sequence, in his film Potemkin (1925). Eisenstein intercut between shotsof towns people trapped on the steps by Czarist troops, and shots of the troopsfiring down upon the crowd. Members of the crowd became individual characters toviewers as the montage continued. Within the editing track the fate of these individuals was played out. A mother picks up her dead child and confronts thetroops. Then she is shot. A student looks on in terror and then flees–his fateuncertain. An old woman prays to be spared, but she is killed by a soldier whoslashes her face with his saber. When a woman holding her baby carriage iskilled, she falls to the steps, and the carriage begins a precipitousdecline–shots of the baby crying are intercut with wide shots of the carriagerolling down the steps. To Eisenstein, each individual shot contributed anenergy within the editing track that yielded far more than the sum total of shots. In other words, the "combination" of shots through editing created a newentity, based on the expressive emotional energy unleashed through the editingprocess.
Morocco recently saw a migration of the population of cities and villages meespecially in the last 50 years that happened Leone Morocco for independence. What are the reasons that drive housing villages to migrate to cities? And whatare the causes of migrations out of the negative impact?
-There is a rangeof reasons why the villagers to the cities Tahgerh me among them lack even themost basic means necessary hospitals and transportation means Finding work Mestekareault Hossein circumstances of living ……………… ect . The resulteased the congestion entire towns and neighborhoods Baladi shanties and Taherabegging and the use of young children Resulting from the whole circumcisioneased some tragic scenes
-Finally, I wish to state that changed everythingin their power to stop the advance of the pious and out of control thesituation
Education encompasses teaching and learning specific skills, and alsosomething less tangible but more profound: the imparting of knowledge, goodjudgement and wisdom. Education has as one of its fundamental goals theimparting of culture from generation to generation (see socialization). Education means 'to draw out', facilitating realisation of self-potential andlatent talents of an individual. It is an application of pedagogy, a body oftheoretical and applied research relating to teaching and learning and draws onmany disciplines such as psychology, philosophy, computer science, linguistics, neuroscience, sociology and anthropology.
The education of an individualhuman begins at birth and continues throughout life. (Some believe thateducation begins even before birth, as evidenced by some parents' playing musicor reading to the baby in the womb in the hope it will influence the child'sdevelopment.) For some, the struggles and triumphs of daily life provide farmore instruction than does formal schooling (thus Albert Einstein's admonitionto "never let school interfere with your education"). Family members may have aprofound educational effect — often more profound than they realize — thoughfamily teaching may function very informally
Terrorism is a term used to describe violence or other harmful acts. Terrorism expert Walter Laqueur in 1999 has counted over 100 definitions andconcludes that the "only general characteristic generally agreed upon is thatterrorism involves violence and the threat of violence". Most definitions ofterrorism include only those acts which are intended to create fear or "terror", are perpetrated for an ideological goal (as opposed to a "madman" attack), anddeliberately target "non-combatants".
As a form of unconventional warfare, terrorism is sometimes used when attempting to force political change by: convincing a government or population to agree to demands to avoid future harmor fear of harm, destabilization of an existing government, motivating adisgruntled population to join an uprising, escalating a conflict in the hopesof disrupting the status quo, expressing a grievance, or drawing attention to acause.
The terms "terrorism" and "terrorist" (someone who engages interrorism) carry a strong negative connotation. These terms are often used aspolitical labels to condemn violence or threat of violence by certain actors asimmoral, indiscriminate, or unjustified. Those labeled "terrorists" rarelyidentify themselves as such, and typically use other generic terms or termsspecific to their situation, such as: separatist, freedom fighter, liberator, revolutionary, vigilante, militant, paramilitary, guerrilla, rebel, jihadi ormujaheddin, or fedayeen, or any similar-meaning word in otherlanguages.
Terrorism has been used by a broad array of politicalorganizations in furthering their objectives; both right-wing and left-wingpolitical parties, nationalistic, and religious groups, revolutionaries andruling governments. The presence of non-state actors in widespread armedconflict has created controversy regarding the application of the laws ofwar.
An International Roundtable on Constructing Peace, Deconstructing Terror (2004) hosted by Strategic Foresight Group recommended that a distinction shouldbe made between terrorism and acts of terror. While acts of terror are criminalacts as per the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1373 and domesticjurisprudence of almost all countries in the world, terrorism refers to aphenomenon including acts, perpetrators of acts of terror and motives of theperpetrators. There is a disagreement on definition of terrorism. However, thereis an intellectual consensus globally that acts of terror should not be acceptedunder any circumstances. This is reflected in all important conventionsincluding the United Nations counter terrorism strategy, outcome of the MadridConference on terrorism and outcome of the Strategic Foresight Group and ALDEroundtables at the European Parliament
Racism or racialism is a form of race, especially the belief that one raceis superior to another. Racism may be expressed individually and consciously, through explicit thoughts, feelings, or acts, or socially and unconsciously, through institutions that promote inequality between races.
In the 19thcentury many legitimized racist beliefs and practices through scientifictheories about biological differences among races. Today, most scientists haverejected the biological basis of race or the validity of "race" as a scientificconcept. Racism, then, becomes discrimination based on alleged race. Raciststhemselves usually do believe that humans are divided into different races.
There are two main definitions of racism today. One of them states thatracism is dicrimination based on alleged race, the other – newer – one statesthat racism has started to include also discrimination based on religion orculture.
Turkish children playing in a muddy courtyard; faces of Vietnamese girls pressed against the windows of dirty barracks; security guards with their guns standing near the fences. This is an area in Cottbus, an industrial town in Germany that the police are trying to protect. It looks more like a prison than a refuge for immigrants who are more and more exposed to the violence of racist groups, like the skinheads.
E arlier this month, gangs of lawless German youths began attacking Vietnamese, Turkish and African labourers, so the authorities have rushed the victims to such places like Cottbus. Indeed, a wave of anti-immigrant violence is sweeping Germany. Every day brings some new spectacle of terror.
L uckily the violence is limited to small uncontrolled groups. Most Germans are outraged at those racist gangs and refer to them as criminals and delinquents looking for fun. Thousands of Germans have marched in Berlin and other cities to protest against racism.
H owever, foreign workers in Germany still fear for their lives and their families and do not feel totally secure. Some are thinking of going back to their native countries.
A drought is a prolonged, abnormally dry period whenthere is notenough water for users' normal needs. Drought is not simply low rainfall; if itwas, much of inland Australia would be in almost perpetual drought. Becausepeople use water in so many different ways, there is no universal definition ofdrought.
Meteorologists monitor the extent and severity of drought in termsof rainfall deficiencies. Agriculturalists rate the impact on primaryindustries, hydrologists compare ground water levels, and sociologists define iton social expectations andperceptions
It's not necessarily a fact that small families are the best, but the factthat raising just one child is extremely expensive. There is the hospital bill, one must have good medical/dental (very expensive) for those toothaches, possible braces, fevers, scrapes, childhood diseases, not to mention the manyshots children get during their younger years. There is clothing, food, a goodhome to live in, education and other hidden costs. Your child is better adjustedif they (a boy) are put into a sport at the age of 5 or 6, or if it's a girl, into dancing, etc., to keeping them off the streets and also give them insightas to what the future can hold for them. It costs many thousands of dollars toraise one child, and I use to know the stats on it, but it has since changed.
If a family can afford more than 2 children (good to have sibling) then theyshould go for it. I have known families during the 50s to 70s where there were 5 – 8 kids in a family and they were all well adjusted kids, not to mention theoldest child always ends up helping mom and pop out. Large families can be fun, but if you can't afford it this can cause a great deal of pressure on theparents and either shorten their life span or end in divorce. To have a largefamily you have to be wellorganized
Groups, societies, or cultures have values that are largely shared by their members. The values identify those objects, conditions or characteristics that members of the society consider important; that is, valuable. In the United States, for example, values might include material comfort, wealth, competition, individualism or religiosity. The values of a society can often be identified by noting which people receive honor or respect. In the US, for example, professional athletes are more highly honored than college professors, in part because the society values physical activity and competitiveness more than mental activity and education. Surveys show that voters in the United States would be reluctant to elect an atheist as a president, suggesting that belief in God is a value.
Values are related to the norms of a culture, but they are more general and abstract than norms. Norms are rules for behavior in specific situations, while values identify what should be judged as good or bad. Flying the national flag on a holiday is a norm, but it reflects the value of patriotism. Wearing dark clothing and appearing solemn are normative behaviors at a funeral. They reflect the values of respect and support of friends and family.
Members take part in a culture even if each member's personal values do not entirely agree with some of the normative values sanctioned in the culture. This reflects an individual's ability to synthesize and extract aspects valuable to them from the multiple subcultures they belong to.
If a group member expresses a value that is in serious conflict with the group's norms, the group's authority may carry out various ways of encouraging conformity or stigmatizing the non-conforming behavior of its members. For example, imprisonment can result from conflict with social norms that have been established as law.
I think that the best things to relief from stress is to watch some sitcoms or hear something funny like jokes …person should develop his sense of humor and he should be cool , Comic and optimistic, because some expert of mental. health have noted that we can't imagine going through a day without laughter.
Humor will make every part of your life better.
It will help you trough difficult times and it will help you make the good times even letter, also i twill attract good people and good situations to you. So cheer up .
drop out of school
Increasing stress in school, at work, and at home has caused many students to drop out of school to escape their problems.
With this increasing amount of stress and work, some students have become very frustrated and depressed. Students then drop out of school and take the easy way out to eliminate some of that stress.
Students who are most likely to drop out of school are those who do not have a great interest in school, or students that have many adult responsibilities placed upon them. These problems can force some students into the work force. They do this both to provide money for themselves and to fill the gap that was once school.
Students in high school do not have to deal with these problems alone. There are guidance counsellors to talk to, as well as close friends and teachers to prevent certain students from.
Are tourists good for a country
This question can be looked from several points of view. Firstly, tourism should be considered in relation to a country’s economy. Secondly it can be seen in terms of its effects on the countryside and environment. Thirdly, the influence of the tourist industry on culture must be taken into account.
T he economy of a country often benefits as a result of tourism; foreign visitors come and spend their money, and this creates jobs for those who run hotels and restaurants. However, there are also certain drawbacks. Whereas the people directly involved in the industry may benefit, other may find that they are worse off. This is because the cost of living goes up and goods become more expensive since tourists are prepared to pay more for them.
A s far as the effect on the environment is concerned, tourism is often a bad thing. While it is true to say that development results in better roads being built and improvements for poorer areas, it is sometimes very harmful. In some countries, huge hotels and skyscrapers have ruined areas of unspoilt beauty.
T he cultural influence of tourism is difficult to measure. In some countries foreign influence can destroy the local way of life. On the other hand, countries which do not encourage tourism may miss the benefits that foreign technology and investment can bring.
I n conclusion, it can be seen that tourism has both advantages and disadvantages; if it is controlled properly, it can be good for a country, but there will always be a danger that it may do a great deal of harm.
Many cities around the world today are heavily polluted. Careless manufacturing methods employed by some industries and absence of consumer demand for environmentally safe products have been behind the pollution problem. One result is that millions of tons of glass, paper, plastic and metal containers are produced, and these are difficult to dispose of.
However, today more and more consumers are choosing ‘green’ and demanding that the products they buy are safe for the environment. Before they buy a product, they ask questions like these, Will this product damage the ozone layer?, Is this package of any danger to the environment? Or Can this metal container be used once?
A recent study showed that two out of five adults now consider the
Environmental safety of a product before they buy it. This means that companies must now change the way they make and sell their products to make sure that they are ‘green’, that is, friendly to the environment.
Only a few years ago, it was impossible to find green products in supermarkets, but now there are hundreds. Some supermarket products have tickets on them to show that the product is green. Some companies have made the manufacturing of clean and safe products their main selling point and insist on it in their advertising.
The concern of a safer and cleaner environment is making companies rethink how they do business. The public will no longer accept the old attitude of Buy it, Use it and then Throw it away.
D isposing of the rubbish we produce every day is a major problem in cities around the world. In Britain, 85% of waste is disposed by landfill, a system which is supposed to prevent pollution, since waste is buried in the ground. This method is far from perfect; however, finding new areas is becoming difficult. Recycling is an increasingly popular way of getting rid of waste, and in Britain a target of recycling half of all domestic recyclable waste has been set for the coming years.
A city that has solved its waste disposal problem in an unusual way is Machida, in Japan. They have developed a totally new approach to waste disposal. The key to the operation is public co-operation. Families must divide their rubbish into six categories.
rubbish that can be easily burnt (combustible), such as kitchen and garden waste.
non-combustible rubbish such as small electric appliances, plastic tools and plastic toys.
products that are toxic or that cause pollution, such as batteries.
bottles and glass containers that can be recycled.
metal containers that can be recycled.
large items such as furniture and bicycles.
T he items in categories 1-5 are collected on different days; (large items are only collected on request.) Then the rubbish is taken to a centre that looks like a clean new office building or hospital. Inside, special equipment is used to sort and process the waste. Almost everything can be reused. Kitchen or garden waste becomes fertilizer; combustible items are burnt to produce electricity; metal containers and bottles are recycled and old furniture, clothing and other useful items are cleaned, repaired and resold cheaply or given away. The work provides employment for disabled people and gives them a chance to learn new skills.
N owadays, officials from cities around the world visit Machida to see whether they can use some of these ideas and techniques to solve their own waste disposal problems.
The Human Development
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a comparative measure of life expectancy, literacy, education, and standard of living for countries worldwide. It is a standard means of measuring well-being, especially child welfare. It is used to determine and indicate whether a country is a developed, developing, or underdeveloped country and also to measure the impact of economic policies on quality of life. The index was developed in 1990 by Indian Nobel prize winner Amartya Sen, Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq, with help from Gustav Ranis of Yale University and Lord Meghnad Desai of the London School of Economics and has been used since then by the United Nations Development Programme in its annual Human Development Report. Described by Amartya Sen as a "vulgar measure", because of its limitations, it nonetheless focuses attention on aspects of development more sensible and useful than the per capita income measure it supplanted, and is a pathway for serious researchers into the wide variety of more detailed measures contained in the Human Development Reports.The HDI measures the average achievements in a country in three basic dimensions of human development:
A long and healthy life, as measured by life expectancy at birth.Knowledge, as measured by the adult literacy rate (with two-thirds weight) and the combined primary, secondary, and tertiary gross enrollment ratio (with one-third weight).A decent standard of living, as measured by the log of gross domestic product (GDP) per capita at purchasing power parity (PPP) in USD.Each year, UN member states are listed and ranked according to these measures. Those high on the list often advertise it (e.g., Jean Chrétien, Former Prime Minister of Canada ), as a means of attracting talented immigrants (economically, individual capital)
Globalization refers to increasing global connectivity, integration and interdependence in the economic, social, technological, cultural, political, and ecological spheres. Globalization is an umbrella term and is perhaps best understood as a unitary process inclusive of many sub-processes (such as enhanced economic interdependence, increased cultural influence, rapid advances of information technology, and novel governance and geopolitical challenges) that are increasingly binding people and the biosphere more tightly into one global system.
There are several definitions and all usually mention the increasing connectivity of economies and ways of life across the world. The Encyclopedia Britannica says that globalization is the "process by which the experience of everyday life … is becoming standardized around the world." While some scholars and observers of globalization stress convergence of patterns of production and consumption and a resulting homogenization of culture, others stress that globalization has the potential to take many diverse forms.
Right of women
Nowadays we take it for granted that women have the same rights as men before the first world war few people believed this.
As far as work was concerned there were jobs wich were regarded as women`s jobs and other wiche were regarded as men`s jobs. Women`s jobs were generally lower paid as men`s. Men did almost all the heavy jobs in industry or in transport.
Women had jobs like dress-making,cleanning or worked as servants.
Women`s main role was as being to raise childeren and look for their home. Women were not expected to take position of leaderschip. Women were not even allowed to vote in elections.
Before the war some women had been struggling to achieve greater equality with men. The most famous of these had been the suffragettes who stagged a violent campaign against the govervment from 1905 to 1914 trying to achieve the right to vote.however, at the outbreak of war, the were still no near to success. Many men argued that women were unsuited to such responsibility that women could not be trusted to vote sensibly that women should not concern themselves with such male activities and voting.
Television has became part of our every day life .what are its advantages and disadvantages
On the one hand, TV has became the most influential means of the mass media because it has both sound and picture .it's also the most popular source of information education and international , in brief TV brings the whole word to us.
One the other hand TV develops passive and lazy viewers .it also prevents communication between the members of the family besides students don't their homwork and may became aggressive when they watch films of violence.
The concept of human rights has existed under several names in European thought for many centuries, at least since the time of King John of England. After the king violated a number of ancient laws and customs by which England had been governed, his subjects forced him to sign the Magna Carta, or Great Charter, which enumerates a number of what later came to be thought of as human rights. Among them were the right of the church to be free from governmental interference, the rights of all free citizens to own and inherit property and be free from excessive taxes. It established the right of widows who owned property to choose not to remarry, and established principles of due process and equality before the law. It also contained provisions forbidding bribery and official misconduct.
The political and religious traditions in other parts of the world also proclaimed what have come to be called human rights, calling on rulers to rule justly and compassionately, and delineating limits on their power over the lives, property, and activities of their citizens.
In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in Europe several philosophers proposed the concept of "natural rights," rights belonging to a person by nature and because he was a human being, not by virtue of his citizenship in a particular country or membership in a particular religious or ethnic group. This concept was vigorously debated and rejected by some philosophers as baseless. Others saw it as a formulation of the underlying principle on which all ideas of citizens' rights and political and religious liberty were based.
In the late 1700s two revolutions occurred which drew heavily on this concept. In 1776 most of the British colonies in North America proclaimed their independence from the British Empire in a document which still stirs feelings, and debate, the U.S. Declaration of Independence .
إلى موضوع اخر باذن الله